By Cordelia Fine
The brain's energy is proven and touted each day in new experiences and examine. And but we have a tendency to take our brains with no consideration, with out suspecting that these lots of hard-working neurons will possibly not continually be operating for us. Cordelia tremendous introduces us to a mind we'd now not are looking to meet, a mind with a brain of its personal. She illustrates the brain's tendency towards self-delusion as she explores how the brain defends and glorifies the ego via twisting and warping our perceptions. Our brains hire a slew of inborn mind-bugs and prejudices, from hindsight bias to unrealistic optimism, from ethical excuse-making to wishful thinking—all designed to avoid us from seeing the reality in regards to the international and the folk round us, and approximately ourselves.
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Extra info for A Mind of Its Own: How Your Brain Distorts and Deceives
That people and animals can do this is obvious. The available neurophysiologic work on temporal discounting suggests that, once again, dopaminergic activity is the crucial signaling system with respect to capturing individual differences in temporal discounting (Ross, Sharp, Vuchinich, & Spurrett, 2003). Note that the prediction-error theory of DA signaling effects suggests that dopaminergic neurons, when ﬁring, phasically summate inputs from all relevant dopaminergic cell groups [including prefrontal cortex, the SMA, NAC, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the habenula (a cell group connected to the retina and pineal systems), and the striatum, and so forth] to compute a temporal difference reward prediction error.
The basal ganglia includes the striatum along with the globus pallidus (a motor output region) and the subthalamic nucleus (a relay to PFC). There are two major families of dopamine (DA) receptors: the D1-like family (D1 and D5) and the D2-like family (D2, D3, and D4). Activation of D1 receptors heightens the signal-to-noise ratio of cell responsiveness, suppressing ﬁring in relatively hyperpolarized cells and expediting ﬁring in relatively depolarized ones. Some of the D2 receptors are autoreceptors that, when stimulated, act to inhibit DA release.
DA appears to be crucial for ECFs at the cognitive level as well. Brozoski, Brown, Rosvold, & Goldman (1979) showed that pharmacologically depleting the PFC of DA stores (in rhesus monkeys) led to severe deﬁcits on executive function tasks (spatial delayed alternation). , 2000; Williams & Goldman-Rakic, 1995). The precise tuning of neural ﬁring in the PFC with the maximum signal-to-noise in system is obtained when D1 receptor stimulation is intermediate. One inﬂuential network model of inverted-U performance effects in the PFC is the dual-state theory of prefrontal cortex DA function proposed by Durstewitz and Seamans (Durstewitz & Seamans, 2008;).