By Soh Kheang Loh, Yuen May Choo (auth.), Ravindra Pogaku, Rosalam Hj. Sarbatly (eds.)
Biofuels will play a key position within the twenty first century because the international faces severe difficulties; risky gasoline costs and international climatic adjustments. either one of those are associated with the overdependence at the fossil fuels: petroleum, usual fuel, and coal. Transportation is nearly completely depending on petroleum dependent fuels akin to gas, diesel gasoline, liquefied petroleum fuel, and on traditional fuel. regardless of an important volume of study into biofuels, the sphere has now not been in a position to change fossil fuels. fresh advances will swap this situation. Extracting gasoline from biomass has been very dear (both monetarily and in land usage), time eating, unusable byproducts, and so on. know-how to acquire liquid gas from non-fossil resources needs to be greater to be swifter, extra effective and less costly. This booklet will disguise the present know-how used for quite a few plant varieties and discover shortcomings with each.
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2011a). The highest H2 content of 64 mol% and 50 mol% was produced from catalytic steam gasification of PS and POF, respectively (Fig. 6a, b). 5% and 6%, respectively, for PS and POF. Based on the data presented, steam contributed significantly to increase the H2 content in palm oil wastes where newly developed bimetallic catalyst addition gave suitable contribution to H2 content in product gas particularly for PS. 5 Conclusion Conversion of biomass to fuel and chemical is feasible for small-scale production.
To avoid condensation, steam was introduced when temperature inside the TGA reached to 110°C. The amount of catalyst used was based on biomass-to-catalyst ratio of 3 (mass basis), while steamto-biomass was kept constant at 1 to 1 ratio (mass basis). 2 shows biomass sample weight % (TG %) and its first derivative (DTG) against temperature range of 200–900°C at a heating rate of 20°C/min (Khan et al. 2011b). Sample drying usually takes place at temperature >200°C which is not 34 a S. Yusup et al.
This technique is preferably applied to electronegative compounds without fragmentation because ionization occurs by attachment of a lithium (or alkaline) ion to the gas molecules to be analyzed. The objective of this study is to determine the mechanism of heteroatomic compounds formed through the hydrothermal reaction of biowaste. Specifically, l- cysteine as a model sample and durian fruit as real biomass have been analyzed focused on sulfur compounds. In addition, the effect of alkaline, Ca(OH)2, on the suppression of sulfur compounds has also been studied.