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Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and

This wide-ranging presentation of utilized superconductivity, from basics and fabrics correct as much as the main points of many purposes, is a necessary reference for physicists and engineers in educational learn in addition to in industry.

Readers trying to find a complete evaluate on simple results concerning superconductivity and superconducting fabrics will extend their wisdom and knowing of either high and low Tc superconductors with admire to their program. know-how, coaching and characterization are lined for bulk, unmarried crystals, thins fi lms in addition to digital units, wires and tapes.

The major advantage of this paintings lies in its huge insurance of vital functions in magnets, energy engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will locate info on superconducting magnets for various purposes like particle physics, fusion study, drugs, and biomagnetism in addition to fabrics processing. SQUIDs and their utilization in medication or geophysics are
thoroughly coated, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, facets on superconductor electronic electronics, top readers to quantum computing and new units.

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5, we show schematically this structure of the Shubnikov phase. The superconductor is penetrated by magnetic flux lines, each of which carries a magnetic flux quantum and is located at the corners of equilateral triangles. 5 are indicated for two flux lines. These currents together with the external magnetic field generate the magnetic flux within the flux line and reduce the magnetic field between the flux lines. Hence, one also talks about flux vortices. With increasing external field Ba , the distance between the flux lines becomes smaller.

In the general case of an arbitrarily oriented and spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field B, one must integrate over the area of the loop, Φ = B df . The unit of magnetic flux is weber (Wb), the unit of ∫F the magnetic field is tesla (T). We have 1 Wb = 1 T m2 . If a loop is placed at a large distance around the axis of an isolated flux tube, we have Φ = Φ0 . 3 4 1 Fundamentals have only expected that an ideal conductor conserves its interior magnetic field and does not expel it. The breakthrough of the theoretical understanding of superconductivity was achieved in 1957 by the theory of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer (“BCS theory”) [6].

In the periodic system of the elements superconductivity occurs in many elements. Here, at atmospheric pressure, niobium is the element with the highest “transition temperature” or “critical temperature” T c of about 9 K. Eventually, thousands of superconducting compounds have been found, and this development is by no means closed. The vanishing of the DC electric resistance below T c is not the only unusual property of superconductors. An externally applied magnetic field can be expelled from the interior of superconductors except for a thin outer layer (“ideal diamagnetism” or “Meissner–Ochsenfeld effect”).

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