By Camille Bonomelli, Max Crispin, Chris N. Scanlan (auth.), Ralph Pantophlet (eds.)
Glycosylation is a standard and intensely very important amendment in organic molecules, fairly of proteins. HIV Glycans in an infection and Immunity provides an summary of the jobs of glycans within the transmission/infection, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of HIV and the HIV envelope glycoprotein. It explores contemporary advances within the knowing of the effect of HIV glycans in an infection and their promise for immunological and healing intervention.
Novel collaborations among glycobiologists and immunologists lately have resulted in key advances within the knowing of HIV glycans. those cross-disciplinary endeavors, their achievements and their influence at the box are all addressed, herein.
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Glycosylation is a typical and intensely very important amendment in organic molecules, rather of proteins. HIV Glycans in an infection and Immunity offers an outline of the jobs of glycans within the transmission/infection, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of HIV and the HIV envelope glycoprotein.
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Extra info for HIV glycans in infection and immunity
Nature 477(7365):466–470 Wang J, Balog CI, Stavenhagen K, Koeleman CA, Scherer HU, Selman MH, Deelder AM, Huizinga TW, Toes RE, Wuhrer M (2011) Fc-glycosylation of IgG1 is modulated by B-cell stimuli. Mol Cell Proteomics 10(M110):004655 Wang W, Nie J, Prochnow C, Truong C, Jia Z, Wang S, Chen XS, Wang Y (2013) A systematic study of the N-glycosylation sites of HIV-1 envelope protein on infectivity and antibodymediated neutralization. Retrovirology 10:14 Wei X, Decker JM, Wang S, Hui H, Kappes JC, Wu X, Salazar-Gonzalez JF, Salazar MG, Kilby JM, Saag MS, Komarova NL, Nowak MA, Hahn BH, Kwong PD, Shaw GM (2003) Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1.
G. van der Aar et al. Inhibition of TLR7 recognition of HIV-1 did not affect NF-κB activation (Gringhuis et al. 2010), indicating that TLR8 plays a role in HIV-1 recognition. Thus, CLRmediated recognition and uptake of HIV-1 by DCs and macrophages are important for the induction of innate and adaptive immunity against HIV-1. However, new insights indicate that HIV-1 subverts the innate recognition by CLRs to enhance transmission and replication. 1 and Fig. 2). , langerin is specifically expressed by LCs, while pDCs selectively express BDCA-2.
DCs are a heterogeneous population of cells, and in the mucosa different DC subsets can be distinguished. G. van der Aar et al. submucosal DCs reside in the underlying submucosal layer (Banchereau and Steinman 1998; Valladeau and Saeland 2005). LCs and submucosal DCs express specific PRR profiles and respond differentially to pathogens (Valladeau and Saeland 2005; van der Aar et al. 2007). Another DC subset is the plasmacytoid DC (pDC), which is abundant in blood (Ito et al. 2005). In contrast to DCs, macrophages are resident tissue cells that do not migrate upon activation (Gordon and Taylor 2005).