By Faisal Ismail
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Extra info for Islam, politics and ideology in Indonesia : a study of the process of Muslim acceptance of the Pancasila
They are essentially pragmatic documents developed out of the normative knowledge and understanding possessed by members of the relevant subject community. They lack an explicit theoretical rationale with respect to the epistemology of the subject discipline and to pedagogy. Since they have been developed within subject communities,14 their 14 In some cases, the notion of subject community has been stretched considerably – particularly so in the coalescence of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism within a single, if subdivided, subject benchmark statement.
Where the stakes are lower, the reliability criterion can be relaxed to some extent. If reliability drops too far, then the validity of the assessment is seriously compromised. 2). They can also be treated in considerably greater depth than is possible here, as has been done for validity by Messick (1989) and for reliability by Feldt and Brennan (1989). 2 Criteria for assessment, and some related questions Criterion Validity Illustrative question(s) Does the assessment deal with what we think we are assessing?
Although some stakeholders may believe that a GPA or degree classification constitutes an intelligible index of a person’s ability, such belief is – as this book aims to show – largely misconceived. Measurement or judgement? Shepard (2000) observed that, although approaches to learning had moved in the direction of constructivism, approaches to assessment had remained inappropriately focused on testing, which she saw as a legacy of the behaviourism strongly promoted during the twentieth century, with its connotations of scientific measurement and social efficiency.