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Additional info for Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition
Chichester. Hau, E. (2006) ‘Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics, 2nd edition’, Springer, Heidelberg. Johnson, L. (1985) ‘Wind Energy Systems’, Prentice-Hall, New York. Le Gourieres, D. (1992) ‘Wind Power Plants Theory and Design’, Pergamon Press, Oxford. G. L. (2009) ‘Wind Energy Explained, Theory, Design and Application, 2nd edition’, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. W. D. N. Spon, London. W. and Gaudiosi, G. , Brentwood. 1 The nature of the wind The energy available in the wind varies as the cube of the wind speed, so an understanding of the characteristics of the wind resource is critical to all aspects of wind energy exploitation, from the identification of suitable sites and predictions of the economic viability of wind farm projects through to the design of wind turbines themselves, and understanding their effect on electricity distribution networks and consumers.
5◦ for all tropical regions. 4), z is the height above ground and zo is the surface roughness length. Ψ is a function which depends on stability: it is negative for unstable conditions, giving rise to low wind shear; and positive for stable conditions, giving high wind shear. 5 f z/u ∗ , which is small compared to ln(z/z o ) for situations of interest here. 14, but varies with the type of terrain. However, the value of α should also depend on the height interval over which the expression is applied, making this approximation less useful than the logarithmic profile.
An energy balance analysis of a 3 MW wind turbine showed that the expected average time to generate a similar quantity of energy to that used for its manufacture, operation, transport, dismantling and disposal was 6–7 months (European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), 2009). A similar time was calculated for installation both onshore and offshore. Until around 2000, the installed wind turbine generating capacity was so low that its output was viewed by electricity Transmission System Operators simply as negative load that supplied energy but played no part in supporting the operation of the power system and maintaining its stability.